JPL's Wireless Communication Reference Website Bibliography


Text Books

  1. W.C. Jakes, "Microwave Mobile Communications", John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1978. New edition 1994.
  2. D. Parsons, "The mobile radio propagation channel", Halsted Press (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.), New York, 1992.
  3. W.C.Y. Lee, "Mobile communications design fundamentals", Howard W. Sams & Co., Indianapolis, 1986.

Large-Scale Path Loss Models

  1. K.A. Norton, "The propagation of radio waves over the surface of the earth and in the upper atmosphere", Proc. of the IRE, Part 1: Vol. 24, No. 10, Oct. 1936, pp. 1367- 1387, part 2: Vol. 25, No. 9, Sep. 1937, pp. 1203-1236.
  2. K. Bullington, "Radio propagation at frequencies above 30 megacycles", Proc. IRE, Vol. 35, Oct. 1947, pp. 1122-1136.
  3. K. Bullington, "Radio propagation fundamentals", Bell Sys. Tech. Journal, Vol. 36, May 1956, pp. 593.
  4. A.G. Longley and P.L. Rice, "Prediction of tropospheric radio transmission over irregular terrain, a computer method", Environmental Science Service Administration, ESSA Tech. Rep. ERL 79-ITS 67 NTIS acc. no 676874, 1968.
  5. J.J. Egli, "Radio Propagation Above 40 MC/s over Irregular Terrain", Proc. IRE, Oct. 1957, pp.1383-1391.
  6. P.L. Rice, "Transmission loss predictions for tropospheric communication circuits", Volume I & II, National Bureau of Standards, Tech. Note 101.
  7. K. Bullington, "Radio propagation for vehicular communications", IEEE Trans. on Veh. Tech., Vol VT-26, No. 4, Nov. 1974, pp. 295-308.
  8. J. Deygout, Multiple knife-edge diffraction of microwaves, IEEE Trans. on Ant. and Prop., Vol. AP-14, No. 4, July 1966, pp. 480-489.
  9. J. Epstein and D.W. Peterson, "An experimental study of wave propagation at 850 Mc", Proceedings of the IRE, 1953, Vol. 41, pp. 595-611.
  10. Y. Okumura, E. Ohmori, T. Kawano and K. Fukuda, "Field strength and its variability in VHF and UHF land mobile radio service", Review of the Elec. Comm. Lab, Vol. 16, No. 9-10, pp. 825-873.
  11. M.L. Meeks, "A propagation experiment combining reflection and diffraction", IEEE Trans. on Ant. and Prop., Vol. AP-30, No. 2, March 1982, pp. 318-321.
  12. A. Blomquist and L. Ladell, "Prediction and calculation of transmission loss in different types of terrain", AGARD Conf. Proc., No. 144, Electromagnetic wave propagation involving irregular surfaces and inhomogeneous media, paper 32.
  13. B.W.P. Adams, "An empirical routine for estimating reflection loss in military radio paths in the VHF and UHF bands", IEE Int. Conf on Ant. and Prop., 28-30 Nov 1978, IEE Conf. Publ. No 169, pp. 26.
  14. M. Hata, "Empirical formula for propagation loss in land mobile radio services", IEEE Trans. on Veh. Tech., Vol. VT-29, No.3, August 1980, pp. 317-325.
  15. E. Damosso and B. Lingua, "A computer prediction technique for land mobile propagation in VHF and UHF bands", in Proc. Int. Comm. Conf. (ICC'83), Boston, MA, 19-22 June 1983, Vol. 1, pp. 59-63.


  1. L.F. Fenton, "The sum of log-normal probability distributions in scatter transmission systems", IRE Trans. Comm. Sys., Vol. CS-8, March 1960, pp. 57-67.
  2. S.C. Schwartz and Y.S. Yeh, "On the distribution function and moments of power sums with log-normal components", Bell Sys. Tech. Journal, Vol. 61, No. 7, Sep. 1982, pp. 1441-1462.
  3. M.J. Marsan, G.C. Hess and S.S. Gilbert, "Shadowing variability in an urban land mobile environment at 900 MHz", Electron. Lett., Vol. 26 No. 10, 10th May 1990, pp. 646-648.

Multipath fading

  1. R.G. Vaughan, "Signals in Mobile Communications: A Review", IEEE Trans. on Veh. Tech., Vol VT-35, No. 4, Nov. 1986, pp. 133-144.
  2. Lord Rayleigh, "On the resultant of a large number of vibrations of the same pitch and of arbitrary phase", Phil. Mag., Vol. 10, Aug 1880, pp. 73-78 and Vol. 27, June 1889, pp. 460-469.
  3. S.O. Rice, "Mathematical analysis of random noise", Bell Sys. Tech. Journal, Vol. 24, No. 1, Jan 1945, pp. 46-156.
  4. S.O. Rice, "Statistical properties of a sine wave plus random noise", Bell Sys. Tech. Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jan. 1948, pp. 109-157.
  5. S.O. Rice, "Distribution of the duration of fades in radio transmission: Gaussian noise model", Bell Sys. Tech. Journal, Vol. 37, No. 1, May 1958, pp. 581-635.
  6. R.H. Clarke, "A statistical theory of mobile radio reception", Bell Syst. Tech. J., Vol. 47, 1968, pp. 957-1000.
  7. T. Aulin, "A modified model for the fading signal at a mobile radio channel", IEEE Tr. on Veh. Tech., Vol. VT-28, 1979, No. 3, pp. 182-203.
  8. G.W. Lank and I.S. Reed, "Average time to loss of lock for an automatic frequency control loop with two fading signals and a related probability density function", IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, Vol. IT-12, No.1, Jan. 1966, pp. 73-75.
  9. J.P.M.G. Linnartz and R. Prasad, "Threshold crossing rate and average non-fade duration in a Rayleigh-fading channel with multiple interferers", International Journal of Electronics and Communications (Archiv fuer Elektronik und Uebertragungstechnik AEU), pp. 345-349. Vol. 43, No. 6, Nov./Dec. 1989.
  10. R.J.C. Bultitude and G.K. Bedal, "Propagation characteristics on microcellular urban mobile radio channels at 910 MHz", IEEE J. Sel. Areas in Commun., Vol. JSAC-7, No. 1, 1989, pp. 31-39.
  11. H. Suzuki, "A statistical model for urban radio propagation", IEEE Trans. Comm., Vol. COM-25, No. 7, July 1977, pp. 673-680.
  12. U. Charash, "Reception through Nakagami fading multipath channels with random delays", IEEE Trans. on Comm., Vol. COM-27, No. 4, April 1979, pp. 657-670.
  13. M. Nakagami, "The m-distribution - A general formula of intensity distribution of rapid fading", in "Statistical methods in wave propagation", W.C. Hoffman, (Ed.), Oxford, Pergamon, 1960, pp. 3-36.
  14. G.L. Turin, F.D. Clapp, T.L. Johnston, S.B. Fine and L. Lavry, "A statistical model of urban multipath propagation", IEEE Trans. on Veh. Tech., Vol. VT-21, No. 1, Feb. 1972, pp. 1-9.
  15. D.O. Cox, "Delay-Doppler characteristics of multipath propagation at 910 MHz in a suburban mobile radio environment", IEEE Trans. on Ant. and Prop., Vol. AP-20, No. 5, Sep. 1972, pp. 625-635.
  16. D.O. Cox and R.P. Leck, "Distribution of multipath delay spread and average excess delay for 910 MHz urban mobile radio path", IEEE Trans. on Ant. and Prop., Vol. AP-23, No. 2, March 1975, pp. 206-213.
  17. J. van Rees, "Measurements of the wideband radio channel characteristics for rural, residential and suburban areas", IEEE Trans. on Veh. Tech., Vol. VT-36, No. 1, Feb. 1987, pp. 2-6.
  18. S.Y. Seidel and T.S. Rappaport, "Pathloss and multipath delay statistics in four European cities for 900 MHz cellular and microcellular communication", IEE Electron. Lett., Vol. 26, No. 20, Sept. 1990, pp. 1713-1714.
  19. F. Hansen and F. Meno, Mobile fading - Rayleigh and log-normal superimposed, IEEE Trans. on Veh. Tech., Vol VT-26, No. 4, Nov. 1977, pp. 332-335.
  20. T. Maseng, "On selection of system bit rate in mobile multipath channel", IEEE Trans. on Veh. Tech., Vol. VT-36, No. 2, May 1987, pp. 51-54.
  21. E.N. Gilbert, "Capacity of a burst noise channel", Bell Sys. Tech. Journal, Vol. 39, 1960, pp. 1253-1266.
  22. M.M. Peritsky, "Statistical estimation of mean signal strength in a Rayleigh fading environment", IEEE Trans. on Comm., Vol. COM-21, No.11, Nov. 1973, pp. 1207- 1213.
  23. K. Allsebrook and J.D. Parsons, "Mobile radio propagation in British cities at frequencies in the V.H.F. and U.H.F. bands", Proc. IEE, Vol. 124, no.2, 1977, pp. 95- 102.
  24. W.F. Bodtmann and H.W. Arnold, "Fade duration statistics of a Rayleigh distributed wave", IEEE Trans. on Comm., Vol. COM-30 No. 3, March 1982, pp.549-553.
  25. F. Swarts, H.C. Ferreira, and D.R. Oosthuizen, "Renewal channel model for PSK on slowly fading Rayleigh channel", Electron. Lett., Vol. 25, No. 22, 26th Oct. 1989, pp. 1514-1515.
  26. A. Krantzik and D. Wolf, "Statistical properties of fading processes describing a land mobile radio channel" (in German), Frequenz, Vol. 44, No. 6, 1990, pp 174-182.
  27. Alexander, S. E., "Characterising Buildings for Propagation at 900 MHz," Electronics Letters, Vol. 19, No. 20, p. 860, September 29, 1983.
  28. Bergljung, C., Borjesson, H., Faulkner, M., et al, "Micro- cell Radio Channel. Preliminary Report on Indoor Field-strength Measurements at 900 and 1700 MHz," Applied Electronics, Lund University, Ref: RMTP/RB/ J031, Issue: 1.0, January 19, 1989.
  29. Bultitude, Robert J.C., "Measurement, Characterization and Modeling of Indoor 800/900 MHz Radio Channels for Digital Communications", IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol.25, No.6, June 1987, pp.5-12.
  30. Devasirvatham, D.M.M., "Multipath Time Delay Spread in the Digital Portable Radio Environment", IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 25, No. 6, June 1987, pp. 13 - 21.
  31. Ganesh, R., Pahlavan, K., "Effects of Traffic and Local Movements on Multipath Characteristics of an Indoor Radio Channel", Electronics Letters, Vol. 26, No. 12, June 7, 1990, pp. 810 - 812.
  32. Hashemi, Homayoun, "The Indoor Radio Propagation Channel", Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 81, No. 7, July 1993, pp. 941 - 968.
  33. Howard, S. & Pahlavan, K., "Doppler Spread Measurements of the Indoor Radio Channel", Electronics Letters, Vol. 26, No. 2, 1990, pp. 107-109.
  34. Molkdar, D., "Review on Radio Propagation into and Within Buildings," IEE Proceedings-H, Vol. 138, No. 1, pp. 61-73, February 1991.
  35. Norton, K.A., Vogler, L.E., Mansfield, W.V., Short, P.J., "The Probability Distribution of the amplitude of a Constant Vector Plus a Rayleigh-Distributed Vector", Proceedings of the IRE, October, 1955, pp. 1354-1361.
  36. Rappaport, Theodore S., "Characterization of UHF Multipath Radio Channels in Factory Buildings", IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 37, No. 8, August 1989, pp. 1058 - 1069.
  37. Saleh, A. A. M., Valenzuela, R. A., "A Statistical Model for Indoor Multipath Propagation," IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. SAC-5, No. 2, pp. 128-137, February 1987.

Short Range Vehicle

  1. Polydoros, A., Vehicle to Roadside Communications Study, Department of Electrical Engineering-Systems, University of Southern California, c. 1992.

Literature on Microcellular Propagation, Systems and Networks

JPL's Wireless Communication Reference Website Jean-Paul M.G. Linnartz, 1993, 1995.