JPL's Wireless Communication Reference Website Bibliography

Random Access Protocols

ALOHA Performance

  1. N. Abramson, "The ALOHA System-Another alternative for computer communications" in Proc. 1970 Fall Joint Computer Conf., AFIPS Press, Vol. 37, 1970, pp. 281-285.
  2. N. Abramson, "Development of the ALOHAnet", IEEE Trans. on Inf. Theory, Vol. IT- 31, No. 2, March 1985, pp. 119-123.
  3. L.G. Roberts, "ALOHA packet system with and without slots and capture", Comput. Comm. Rev., Vol. 5, Apr. 1975, pp. 28-42.
  4. J.J. Metzner, "On improving utilization in ALOHA channels", IEEE Trans. on Comm., Vol. COM-24, No. 4, April 1976, pp. 447-448.
  5. A.B. Carleial and M.E. Hellman, "Bistable behavior of ALOHA-type systems", IEEE Trans. on Comm., Vol. COM-23, No. 4, Apr. 1975, pp. 401-410.
  6. L. Kleinrock and S.S. Lam, "Packet switching in a multiaccess broadcast channel- performance evaluation", IEEE Trans. on Comm., Vol. COM-23, No. 4, Apr. 1975, pp. 410-423.
  7. S. Ghez, S. Verdú and S.C. Schwartz, "Stability properties of slotted ALOHA with multipacket reception capability", IEEE Trans. on Automatic Control, Vol. 33, No.7, July 1988, pp. 640-649.
  8. F.C. Schoute, "Determination of stability of a Markov process by eigenvalue analysis, applied to the access capacity enhancement ALOHA protocol" Philips PTI report SR2200-82- 3790, Hilversum, Dec. 12th, 1982 (14 pages).
    S. Parekh, F.C. Schoute and J. Walrand, "Instability and geometric transience of the ALOHA protocol", Memorandum No. UCB/ERL M86/73, Univ. of California, Berkeley, 1986.
  9. Y. Onozato and S. Noguchi, "On the thrashing cusp in slotted ALOHA systems", IEEE Trans. on Comm, Vol. COM-33, No. 11, Nov. 1985, pp. 1171-1182.
  10. Y. Onozato, J. Liu and S. Noguchi, "Stability of a slotted ALOHA System with capture effect", IEEE trans. on Veh. Tech., Vol. VT-38, No. 1, Feb. 1989, pp. 31-36.

Wireless ALOHA nets

  1. N. Abramson, "The throughput of packet broadcasting channels", IEEE Trans. on Comm., Vol. COM-25, No. 1, Jan. 1977, pp. 117-128
  2. .A. Roberts and T.J. Healy, "Packet radio performance over slow Rayleigh fading channels", IEEE Trans. on Comm., Vol. COM-28, No. 2, Feb. 1980, pp. 279-286.
  3. D. Verhulst, M. Mouly and J. Szpirglas, "Slow frequency hopping multiple access for digital cellular radiotelephone", IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm., Vol. SAC-2, 1984, pp.563- 574.
  4. J.C. Arnbak and W. van Blitterswijk, "Capacity of slotted-ALOHA in a Rayleigh fading channel", IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm., Vol. SAC-5, No. 2, Feb. 1987, pp. 261- 269.
  5. C. Namislo, "Analysis of mobile radio slotted ALOHA networks", IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm., Vol. SAC-2, No. 4, July 1984, pp. 583-588.
  6. C. van der Plas and J.P.M.G. Linnartz, "Stability of mobile slotted ALOHA network with Rayleigh fading, shadowing and near-far effect", IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 39, No. 4, November 1990, pp 359-366.
  7. J.P.M.G. Linnartz, R. Prasad, and J.C. Arnbak, "Spatial distribution of traffic in a cellular ALOHA network", Electronics and Communication (Archiv für Elektronik und übertragungstechnik), Vol. 42, No. 1, Jan./Feb.1988, pp. 61-63.
  8. I.M.I. Habbab, M. Kavehrad and C-E. W. Sundberg, "ALOHA with capture over slow and fast fading radio channels with coding and diversity", IEEE J. on Sel. Areas in Comm., Vol. SAC-7, No.1, Jan. 1989, pp. 79-88.
  9. B. Ramamurthi, A.A.M. Saleh and D.J. Goodman, "Perfect-capture ALOHA for local radio communications", IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., Vol. SAC-5, No. 5, June 1987, pp. 806-814.
  10. D.J. Goodman and A.A.M. Saleh, "The near/far effect in local ALOHA radio communications", IEEE Trans. on Veh. Techn., Vol VT-36, No. 1, Feb. 1987, pp. 19- 27.
  11. J.P.M.G. Linnartz and J.J.P. Werry, "Error correction and error detection coding in a fast fading narrowband slotted ALOHA network with BPSK modulation", in Proc. International Symposium on "Communication Theory & Applications", 9-13 September 1991, Crieff, U.K, paper 37, 7 pages.
  12. K. Zhang and K. Pahlavan, "A New Approach for the Analysis of the Slotted ALOHA Local Radio Networks", in Proc. International Conference on Communications ICC, Atlanta, April 1990, pp. 1231-1235.
  13. J.P.M.G. Linnartz, "Slotted ALOHA land-mobile radio networks with site diversity", IEE Proceedings I, Vol. 139, No. 1, Feb. 1992, pp. 58-70.
  14. C. T. Lau and C. Leung, "Capture models for mobile packet radio networks", IEEE Trans. on Comm., Vol. 40, No. 5, May 1992, pp. 917-925..
  15. K. Zhang and K. Pahlavan, "Relation between transmission and throughput of slotted ALOHA local packet radio networks", IEEE Trans. on Comm., Vol. 40, No. 3, March 1992, pp. 577-583.

Text Books

  1. J.P.M.G. Linnartz, "Narrowband Land-Mobile Radio Networks", Artech House, Boston 1993.
  2. A.S. Tanenbaum, "Computer Networks", Second Edition, Prentice-Hall International Editions, London, 1989.
  3. D. Bertsekas and R. Gallager, "Data Networks", Prentice-Hall International, Inc., London, 1987, ISBN 0-13-196981-1.
  4. W. Stallings, "Data and Computer Communication", Second edition, Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, 1988.
  5. L. Kleinrock, "Queueing systems. Vol. 1: Theory; Vol 2: Computer applications", New York: Wiley, 1975, 1976.


  1. L. Kleinrock and F. A. Tobagi, "Packet switching in radio channels: Part 1-Carrier Sense Multiple Access modes and their throughput-delay characteristics, IEEE Trans. on Comm., Vol. COM-23, No. 12, Dec. 1975, pp. 1400-1416.
  2. F. Tobagi and L. Kleinrock, "Packet switching in radio channels part II- the hidden terminal problem in carrier sense multiple access and the busy tone solution", IEEE Trans. on Comm., Vol. COM-23, No. 12 Dec. 1975, pp. 1417-1433.
  3. M.L. Molle, K. Sohraby, and A.N. Venetsanopoulos, "Space-time model of asynchronous CSMA protocols for local area networks" IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm., Vol. SAC-5, No. 6, July 1987, pp. 956-968.
  4. A.E. Kamal, "A discrete-time approach to the modeling of Carrier-Sense Multiple- Access on the bus topology", IEEE Trans. on Comm., Vol. 40, No. 3, March 1992, pp. 533-540.


  1. J. Krebs and T. Freeburg, "Method and apparatus for communicating variable length messages between a primary station and remote stations at a data communications system", US patent No. 4,519,068, 1985.
  2. J.P.M.G. Linnartz, G.A. Awater and R.-J. Venema, "Inhibit Sense Multiple Access in Radio Channels with propagation delays", IEEE Transactions on Communications, Jan. 1994, Vol COM-42, No. 1, pp. 119-126.
  3. A. Murase and K. Imamura, "Idle-signal Casting Multiple Access with Collision Detection (ICMA-CD) for land mobile radio", IEEE Trans. on Veh. Tech., Vol. VT- 36, No.2, May 1987, pp. 45-50.
  4. O. Andrisano, G. Grandi, and C. Raffaelli, "Analytical model for Busy Channel Multiple Access (BCMA) for packet radio networks in a local environment", IEEE Trans. On Veh. Tech., Vol VT-39, No.4, Nov. 1990, pp. 299-307.
  5. R. Sinha and S.C. Gupta, "Performance evaluation of a protocol for packet radio network in mobile computer communications", IEEE Trans. Veh. Tech., Vol VT-33, No. 3, Aug. 1984, pp. 250-258.
  6. J.G. Gardiner and A.I.A. Jabbar, "Performance of CSMA protocols in fading mobile radio environments", in Proc. 5th IEE Int. Conf. on Mobile Radio and Personal Communications, Warwick, UK, Dec 11-14, 1989, pp. 10-14.
  7. K.J. Zdunek, D.R. Ucci and J.L. Locicero, "Throughput of nonpersistent Inhibit Sense Multiple Access with capture", Electron. Lett., Vol.25, No. 1, 5th Jan. 1989, pp. 30-32.

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